PWM (pulse width modulation) power LED dimmer

This LED dimmer is built around the CD 4093 CMOS chip. PWM technique (pulse width modulation) is a very efficient way of controlling the brightness of LEDs with minimum energy waste. Instead of varying the brightness by varying the supply current with a variable resistor or transistor it is accomplished by varying the ratio of ON time vs OFF time. This when done at a high frequency rate is perceived by the eye (POV) as a smooth change in brightness.

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